U.S. Department of Agriculture January 13, 1971
Plant Science Research Division, ARS
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Members of the Review Board met December 8, 1970. They were of the opinion that the varieties listed below are distinctive and merit certification.
Name During Testing Breeder Applicant
Hayden Arizona DC-2 Melvin H. Schonhorst Arizona Agricultural Experiment M.W. Nielson Station, University of Arizona,
R.K. Thompson Tucson, Arizona 85721
Sonora-70 Reselect Melvin H. Schonhorst Arizona Agricultural Experiment
Sonora M.W. Nielson Station, University of Arizona,
R.K. Thompson Tucson, Arizona 85721
Thor N5-150 J.L. Mings Northrup, King & Co.
1500 Jackson St., N.E.
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413
Warrior NO-507 Dale Grissom Northrup, King & Co.
1500 Jackson St., N.E.
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413
Weevlchek FFR Syn W Robert J. Buker Farmers Forage Research
Johnny R. Thomas Cooperative, Rt. 2, Box 290,
Lafayette, Indiana 47905
WL 504 CX 54 J.C. Meserve Waterman-Loomis Company
D.F. Beard 601 Oswell Street
I.I. Kawaguchi Bakersfield, California 93307
WL 508 CX 58 I.I. Kawaguchi Waterman-Loomis Company
D.F. Beard 601 Oswell Street
Bakersfield, California 93307
183 Syn. 67-4 I.J. Johnson DeKalb Agresearch
CL 50 DeKalb, Illinois 60115
Information pertinent to certifying agencies which was requested on the application for each variety and the information submitted by the applicants are given below. The respective applicants should be contacted if additional information is desired.
1. A statement of the origin and the breeding procedures used in developing the variety.
2. Area of probable adaptation and primary purpose (hay, grazing, etc.) for which this variety will be used. Report States and areas within States where the variety has been tested, and proposed areas of recommendation and merchandising.
3. Information of value to field inspectors (such as uniformity, leaf, flower characteristics, etc.), physiological characteristics, obvious disease and insect reactions, and other identifying characteristics.
4. Procedure for maintaining stock seed, seed classes to be used, a statement as to the limitations of generations that may be certified, and any other requirements or limitations necessary to maintain varietal characteristics.
5. If this variety is accepted by official certifying agencies, when will certified seed first be offered for sale?
Information Submitted by Applicant on the Above Points:
1. Two parent clones were selected from P.I. 235,736 and two clones were selected from a field of Sonora; the parent clones were selected for high general combining ability for forage production.
2. Adapted to the lower desert valley areas of southern Arizona for hay, greenchop or grazing.
3. Purple flowers, darker green foliage than Mesa-Sirsa. Pubescence and uniformity are similar to Mesa-Sirsa and El-Unico. Very nonwinter-dormant, upright in growth habit. Level of resistance to the spotted alfalfa aphid similar to that of Mesa-Sirsa and El-Unico. High level of resistance to four biotypes of the spotted alfalfa aphid.
4. Two-clone crosses from each of the two germplasm sources will be made in isolation. An equal amount of seed from each "single-cross" will be blended and classed as breeder seed. Breeder seed will be planted to produce the first synthetic generation of the "double-cross" combination and will be classed as foundation seed. Foundation seed will be planted to produce the second synthetic generation and will be classed as certified seed. Breeder and foundation seed will be grown in lower desert valley areas of southern Arizona. There will be no registered class of seed. Only breeder, foundation and certified seed may be called Hayden alfalfa.
5. Fall of 1971.
1. One hundred plants were selected in 1963 from a 2-year-old stand of Sonora alfalfa in which a high percentage of the plants showed severe symptoms of infection by the alfalfa mosaic virus. Selection was based on freedom from stunting and chlorosis. Nine clones highest in general combining ability for forage production were used as parents of Sonora-70.
2. Adapted to the lower desert valley areas of southern Arizona where the variety Sonora is well adapted. It will be used for hay, greenchop or pasture production.
3. Purple flowers and darker green foliage than Mesa-Sirsa. Pubescence and uniformity are similar to Sonora. Very nonwinter dormant and upright in growth habit. Sonora-70 is intermediate between Mesa-Sirsa and Sonora in resistance to four biotypes of the spotted alfalfa aphid.
4. An equal amount of polycross seed from each of the nine parent clones will be blended and classed as breeder seed. Breeder seed will be used to establish fields for the production of foundation seed. Foundation seed will be used to establish fields for the production of certified seed. Breeder and foundation seed will be grown in lower desert valley areas of southern Arizona. There will be no registered class. Only breeder, foundation and certified seed may be called Sonora-70.
5. Fall of 1971.
1. Thor originates from 30 parent clones, 24 of which were selected from Saranac, 4 from Cardinal and 2 from Cardinal x Glacier crosses. Initial selections were made in the bacterial wilt nursery. The final 30 parent clones were selected on the basis of progeny performance for forage production, rate of recovery and growth habit in replicated trials. All of the 30 parent clones are resistant to bacterial wilt. Initial selection began in 1954 with the Saranac clones entering the program in 1964.
2. Thor is considered primarily for use in hay production and adapted to areas where Flemish alfalfas have performed satisfactorily previously. Thor is expected to provide additional production years where bacterial wilt has been the limiting factor in stand longevity of wilt susceptible Flemish varieties.
3. Dark purple to blue flowers with various gradations. Uniformity similar to Saranac. More winter dormant than DuPuits and less dormant than Ranger, similar or slightly less dormant than Saranac. Erect growth habit. Dark green foliage color similar to Saranac and DuPuits. Highly resistant to bacterial wilt.
4. Breeder - foundation - certified will be the generation sequence. Breeder seed is a bulk of seed produced by the random interpollination of the 30 parent clones. Foundation seed production will be limited to the States of Washington, Idaho and Nevada. Advanced generations produced from the certified seed will not be recognized as Thor. The 30 parent clones will be maintained at Washington, Iowa.
1. Initial development began in 1956, with release and seed sales in 1962. Warrior was developed from two large populations maintained separately from Flemish (Synthetic Population A) and diverse winter hardy U.S. germplasm (Synthetic Population B). These populations were selected on the basis of combining ability between the two populations. The two populations are planted in alternate rows for seed production of the certified generation.
2. Warrior is adapted across the Northern United States and Canada wherever alfalfa is grown except under extreme dryland conditions. It has been grown extensively throughout the Midwestern States and mainly for hay.
3. Intermediate blue and purple flowers with a limited number of dark purple, greenish and yellow flowers. Rather variable in plant type, height and shape. Winter dormancy similar to DuPuits to slightly more dormant. Tall upright.
4. Warrior is the total seed crop from fields planted to the Flemish type synthetic (A) and the U.S. type winter hardy synthetic (B) seeded separately in alternate rows. Breeder seed for synthetics (A) and (B) are bulks from the original clones within the respective synthetics. Foundation seed of each of synthetic (A) and synthetic (B) is produced in the States of Washington, Idaho or Nevada. Foundation seed is used to plant the certified generation fields with the production limited to the States of Washington, Idaho, Nevada, and possibly Utah. Fields will be harvested for four years or less, depending upon the uniformity of stands between the two populations.
5. Certified seed will be available in 1971. Uncertified seed has been sold widely since 1962.
1. Beginning in 1961, 36,000 seedlings were greenhouse screened for Leptosphaerulina leafspot. The susceptible half of the population was discarded and the remaining plants were inoculated with bacterial wilt and transplanted to the field. Individual plant notes were taken on vigor, leafhopper tolerance and leaf diseases. Three hundred clones were selected and evaluated for seed production in the West. Polycross progeny plots were established in both
North Carolina and Tennessee in 1964 and 1965. These 1,166 plots were scored twice each year for alfalfa weevil feeding damage. Nine clones were selected, based on these weevil feeding notes. Three clones were subsequently discarded for other characters and the remaining six clones were combined into a synthetic tested as FFR Syn W and later named Weevlchek. These 6 clones have been evaluated in complete diallels at Lafayette and Louisville. They were found to be remarkably similar for weevil feeding resistance, leaf color, leafhopper resistance, and bacterial wilt resistance. They vary in growth habit, leaf size, flower color, and mildew reaction. Weevlchek is a Vernal type variety that is wilt resistant, winter hardy, fine stemmed, and contains a wide range of flower color; but none of the parent clones trace to Vernal. One of the parent clones was selected by W. W. Washko from a Medicago falcata line identified as 23l-731-Wis. The other 5 clones trace to breeding lines and not directly to varieties.
2. Although the early selection was carried out in North Carolina and Tennessee, it appears to have a wide range of adaptation. Weevlchek yields have been excellent in Indiana and Kentucky and acceptable in Maryland, Virginia, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Nebraska. Weevlcheks leafhopper resistance and bacterial wilt resistance may make it competitive throughout the area where fall dormant varieties are grown.
3. Flower color - purple, green, yellow, and white (the complete range). Quite uniform for weevil feeding, leafhoppers, bacterial wilt reaction and leaf color; variable for growth habit, leaf size, flower color, and mildew reaction. Dormancy is similar to Ranger and Vernal. Growth habit - similar to Vernal but no critical data. Leaf color is darker than other varieties to which it has been compared. Weevlchek appears to break spring dormancy later than most varieties, but in the summer has vigor equal to Vernal.
4. The six parent clones will be maintained by Farmers Forage Research Cooperative. There will be a maximum of three sexual generations. Breeder seed will be bulk harvested seed from interpollinating vegetative cuttings of the six parent clones in an isolated greenhouse or field plantings. Foundation seed fields will be grown from only greenhouse produced breeder seed. Commercial seed designated as the variety Weevlchek can be produced only when breeder or foundation seed is used as planting stock.
The first plantings of Weevlchek involved breeder seed produced in our greenhouse. Foundation seed was grown in California from this greenhouse produced breeder seed. In the future, breeder seed will be produced on the six parent clones in the field in California or another Western State to eliminate the foundation generation. Plantings for forage evaluation after the fall of 1968 were from third generation seed; that is, breeder greenhouse to foundation California to certified California. We anticipate producing no additional foundation seed, but will continue to plant that which is on hand.
5. Spring of 1971.
1. Phenotypic recurrent selection commenced in 1960 at Bakersfield, California, on spotted alfalfa aphid screened, nondormant selections, and/or progenies of the following: Nondormant varieties - Sirsa #9, Cal Common 49, Moapa, and African; dormant varieties - Atlantic, Vernal, Ranger, Buffalo, Williamsburg, and Lahontan; P.I. numbers -- 183,262, 192,239, 201,864, 213,005, 226,518, and 231,768. From 1,000 to 3,000 seedlings resistant to spotted alfalfa aphids, pea aphids, and apparent diseases were transplanted annually in an isolated nursery. Subsequent roguing for type and suscepsibility to insects and disease reduced the population by 90% and the remaining 10% was then allowed to interpollinate. Seed of the selected survivors was harvested and recycled. WL 504 resulted from 92 selections made during the fifth cycle in 1964.
2. WL 504 is adapted to the Southwestern U.S. It has been tested in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and southern Nevada for production of hay, silage (greenchop), and dehydration.
3. Purple to light purple flowers, moderately uniform growth habit. Fall and winter dormancy - January 17, 1967, height of WL 504 - 5.8", Moapa - 5.5", Caliverde 65 - 3.5", and Washoe - 2.5" at Bakersfield, California. Upright growth, and tightly curled seed pods.
4. Two grams of seed of each of the 92 plants selected was composited and planted in isolation to produce breeder seed in Kern County, California. Sixty-five (65) pounds of breeder seed is maintained in a sealed vault. Foundation seed is the first generation seed harvested from fields planted with breeder seed in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Certified seed is that which is produced on fields planted with either breeder or foundation seed. No other class or generation will qualify for certified seed.
1. Phenotypic recurrent selection with the same germplasm as for WL 504 but continued for an additional three cycles. Following a serious pea and spotted alfalfa aphid attack in the fall of 1967, 95 plants highly resistant to both insects were selected. In addition, selection was based on freedom of symptoms of downy mildew and foliage diseases.
2. Adapted to the Southwestern U.S. for production of hay, silage, and dehydration. Areas tested were California, Arizona, and Mexico.
3. Purple to light purple flowers, moderately uniform growth habit. Nondormant - On January 18, 1969, WL 508 - 4.75", Moapa - 5.00", Mesa-Sirsa - 6.50", WL 504 - 4.75", and Lahontan - 2.00". Upright growth, frequent axillary branching, and tightly curled seed pods.
4. Fifteen (15) grams of seed of each selection was composited and planted in Kern County, California, to produce breeder seed of which 265 pounds is maintained in a sealed container. Foundation seed is the first generation seed produced from fields planted with breeder seed in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Certified seed will be produced from fields planted with either foundation or breeder seed. No other class or generation will qualify for certified seed.
1. Breeding program was initiated at Woodland, California, in February 1963, with establishment of a thinly seeded nursery plantings of Moapa and Sonora. A very heavy epiphytotic of downy mildew (Peronospora trifoliorum) occurred killing or severely injuring nearly two-thirds of the seedlings. Approximately 2,000 healthy surviving seedlings were thinned to a single-plant basis and evaluated during the summer, 1963, for leafiness, foliage color and recovery after 28-30 day interval top-growth removal. By fall, approximately 200 plants had been chosen as superior in forage characteristics. In spring 1964, a total of 135 single plants were
chosen primarily on spring vigor of which 94 traced to Moapa and 41 from Sonora origins. Rooted cuttings of these 135 plants were established for evaluation of forage and seed. In fall 1964, 31 clones were chosen, established as rooted cuttings in the greenhouse, and tested for antibiosis resistance to ENT-B of spotted alfalfa aphid. Twenty were highly resistant. During the winter 1964-65, a complete diallel was made by hand crossing to obtain seed of 190 possible F1 crosses among the 20 parental clones. In addition, each of the 20 clones was self-pollinated to obtain sufficient seed for S1 progeny evaluation. Sufficient F1 seed was obtained to test all 190 crosses in 4 replications with 16 plants per replication, spaced 1 foot apart in rows 1 foot apart. This forage trial was harvested three times in 1965, and six times in 1966. Several experimental synthetics of superior clones were made up in cages in 1966 for testing in 1967, of which one was subsequently increased and distributed as 183.
2. Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys in California and in Mexico as a variety to be used for hay production.
3. Blue flowers with variations in shades of color from light to dark blue. Comparable to other varieties in normal variability as a synthetic. Fall dormancy very similar to Moapa. Upright, tall in growth habit. Susceptible to ENT-F spotted alfalfa aphids and to pea aphids.
4. Breeder seed is produced by compositing seed from the vegetative multiplication of eight parental clones grown in isolation. Breeder seed fields are inspected by the California Crop Improvement Association. Breeder seed field stands remain for only 2 years. Foundation seed is produced in California from breeder seed in isolation, as specified by AOSCA. Stands for foundation seed remain for only 2 years. Certified seed can be produced from foundation seed or from breeder seed.
5. Fall 1971.
C. H. Hanson, Chairman
National Certified Alfalfa
Variety Review Board
Members of the Board
Frank G. Parsons
C.H. Hanson, Chairman (nonvoting)
Alternates of the Board
Allenby L. White